Technology transfer

Technology transfer in Raymon Group
Introduction to technology transfer:
Technology is all the knowledge, products, processes, tools, methods, and systems that are used in creating goods or providing services. In fact, all that is needed to produce a product. One of the fields of applying technology management that requires comprehensiveness and introspection is technology transfer .
Progress and mass and industrial production require technology transferIs . Sensitive industries such as pharmaceutical, atomic and military, medical equipment and necessities will be destroyed almost without the production and transfer of technology. In addition, countries will develop in the market and economy that value the development of their technology and technologies and in these fields focus In this century, technological war has replaced military wars and different countries are trying to equip themselves in these fields because their survival depends on becoming stronger in these fields. Obviously, in such a situation, creating a suitable platform for the possibility of technology transfer will lead to development in various political sectors and economic development and progress of countries.

Definition of technology transfer:
In the scientific and general view, technology transfer is the application and use of technology in a place other than the original place of its creation and creation. In other words, the process that causes technology to flow from the source to its recipient is called technology transfer..
In all sciences , technology transfer  is carried out with its own complexities. In the expert view, the more sensitive industries become. The complexities related to technology transfer will be more difficult and reaching the goal requires more research and development and effort.

Factors affecting the transfer of technology:
motivation, goal, criterion and profit agreed by the applicant and the supplier of technology.
The level of technology and capabilities of the applicant in the matter of its complete transfer.
Vendor strategy for selling technology.
Available information sources and bargaining power of the applicant.
Current general and technological policy of the applicant country.

 Technology transfer in the pharmaceutical industry and its related industries:
According to the report of the vice president of strategic management of Raymon Group and as explained in the previous lines, in today's world technology transfer in sensitive industries has its own complexities and difficulties, industries such as Pharmaceuticals, medicinal plants, herbal medicines, military and nuclear industries and medical equipment and industries like this are not separate from this rule and they add increasing complications to this important in order to transfer knowledge and innovation. To these issues, problems related to sanctions should also be added. Problems of financial exchange, embargo on hardware and software, and various equipment and machines, make the path for the transfer of various technologies of clean industries such as pharmaceuticals difficult and difficult. Therefore, in the first step, choosing the best method to choose the most optimal way in this direction and accompanying a team or a strong consulting company in the field of technology transfer will minimize the risks in this area.
Otherwise, different and general methods of technology transfer are examined:
Technology transfer methods
A: Technology transfer in an official way

bachelor's degree(Licensing): A company receives a special production privilege from another company. A common method for third world countries for industrialization (import substitution) and also for advanced countries in the case of emerging technologies (development of competitiveness), if negotiators do not dominate. It is expensive and usually an amount is considered as a royalty (equivalent to 100 units of the product price), or as the production of each product (maximum 3% of the product price). It includes the license contract of invention - technical know-how - trademark - copyright.
 (Acquisition) A company acquires the transfer of its needed technology from another company
 Obtained through training((Educational Acquisition) A company hires specialists under special technical conditions or asks another smaller company to provide specialist personnel..
 Acquisition and merger: A company merges with another technology holding company and a new company is formed from the combination of two previous companies..
  Minority shares(Minority Equity): A company buys part of the shares of the technology supplier company, but does not have a role in its management..
 Joint investment: It is formed on topics of interest to both parties and it is mainly to get to know the technologies of both parties in the form of direct and indirect transfer. The target market is the work that is done after preliminary study and confirmation. The best The method is technology transfer. If there is risk, the foreign investment bears a small percentage of the contract, and if there is no risk, the foreign party (51% to 49%) of the contract..
 The method of buying the whole factory: (Turn Key) takes place when the contract is ready for operation
 Engineering services: Engineering services refer to those technical works that are used to create an industrial and production project. Usually, these services are provided by experienced engineering institutions or machinery dealers.
 Research and development contract: (R & Agreement)  A company undertakes the cost of conducting research projects in an academic and research center in order to develop a specific technology.
 joint transaction(Joint Venture): Two different companies create a third company for technological innovation and share in the profits and losses of the third company.  .
  Technical service contract: Technical assistance is generally technical and managerial (industrial) services and information that are needed in the production and manufacture of products or materials. Usually, these services are provided by production units that have the necessary and sufficient experience in this field. In industrial and production projects, technical assistance mainly includes the following services.:
 Help in choosing the technology and method of manufacturing and testing the factory.
 Preparation of technical specifications of machinery and equipment.
 Preparation of product specifications.
 Cooperation in the comparison of proposals for the purchase of machinery.
 Cooperation in the procurement and purchase of semi-finished parts and accessories and auxiliary materials.
 Cooperation in preparing the specifications of raw materials and their supply sources.
Services related to conducting tests and investigations of raw materials and products.
 Supervising the installation and commissioning of the factory.
 Services for correcting and changing production methods.
 Management services during start-up and operation.
Technical cooperation: two companies share their technological abilities to reach a newer product..
Joint research and development(Joint R&D) :: Two companies conduct research and development in a certain technology field.
Research and development contract:(R & Agreement): A company undertakes the cost of carrying out research projects in an academic and research center in order to develop a certain technology.
ConsortiumConsortium: A number of companies and public institutions cooperate with each other to achieve a specific goal in the field of technological innovation, but no shares are exchanged between them..
schemingNetworking: A company creates a network of communication with other people and companies so that it can always be in the process of technical and technical innovations,
using external manufacturers.:(Outsourcing): A company transfers technical activities outside itself and receives only the required product.
Spin Off: Companies that are created next to research centers or universities and commercialize their technological innovation..
Foreign direct investment: Foreign investment is done as a percentage of internal and external investment, the target of investment is done by foreigners within the framework of selected policies. Management systems, material planning, production technologies, marketing, after-sales services. They are from the sale of foreign investment.
Scientific-educational parks model: In this model, facilities are provided for specialists to create a company. These companies are often created by personnel who leave laboratories.
Fert Model: This model is used in the UK and it supervises people who represent several companies or consortia who search for technology in government laboratories..
Secondary and second-hand contracts: This method can be done in different ways.
Taking part of the work from the transferor (internalization)
taking work from reputable companies if we are in their network (specialized activities)
taking work and giving it to different departments if we have a strong engineering department..
 Cross-selling contracts: In this method, the technology supplier agrees to provide production facilities to the applicant and buys his manufactured products in the future as a return of the principal and profit of his investment. The most important incentive and motivation of the technology supplier in entering into the mutual sale contract is the use and exploitation of cheap natural and human resources in the country receiving the technology. The most important motivation for the receiver of technology is the transfer of industrial technology and maximum utilization of natural and human resources in his country..
 Strategic alliance: Two companies share their technological capabilities in order to reach a newer product. Strategic cooperation is the process of identifying gaps in indigenous technologies by searching for filling technologies and then involving the owners of those technologies in a partnership. The result of which is the transfer of technology to the country. Newly industrialized countries like Korea, like advanced industrialized countries, are now looking for the complements of their indigenous technology and for this purpose, they provide all the necessary incentives to attract foreign owners of technology to this type of cooperation..
Technology transfer 1

B: Technology transfer informally
  1.  Recruitment of technical and scientific personnel
  2.  Buying and importing machinery and receiving technical assistance from the main manufacturers of machinery
  3.   Reverse engineering is usually done when multinational companies or technology supplier countries refuse to transfer advanced technology franchises to developing countries..
  4. Sending troops abroad for training and gaining practical experience
  5. Organization of conferences and book exhibitions, publication of articles and international, commercial and industrial exhibitions
  6. The degree of importance and effectiveness of each of these methods of technology transfer depends on factors such as the nature of the required technology and the ability of the country receiving the technology to learn and absorb technological know-how. The choice of transfer method also determines the costs and benefits of the transferred technology. In other words, the transfer method is determined as a result of the technology supplier's willingness to supply it in a particular form, as well as the technology receiver's willingness and ability to acquire and absorb it. Therefore, in general, the various methods of technology transfer can be determined by some important factors such as the goals of the transferor and receiver of technology, the level of managerial abilities and technological capacities of the receiving country, the size of the available market and the speed of technological developments. Therefore, it is necessary to be very careful in choosing the method of technology transfer in order to prevent the occurrence of adverse side effects such as trade balance deficit and technological dependence of such a choice. If there is a minimum level of technological readiness in the country or a company that needs technology, it is possible to achieve technology by using the experiences of engineers and capable specialists in the required field. Global developments have increased the possibility of using this method. For example, after the collapse of the former Soviet Union, about 4 million prominent experts and scientists have faced the unemployment crisis, who are willing to work in other countries, including Iran, with very favorable conditions..
There are such situations in Europe as well, such as the increasing trend of unemployment in France and the presence of experienced people in their retirement centers is a suitable field for the use of specialists. Even under normal conditions, it is possible to reach the hidden technologies for product supply "in the type of product / in the production process / in the ratio of raw materials, etc." by hiring suitable consultants..
In order to use this method, the applicant's readiness, motivation and interest in acquiring technology is necessary, and despite these conditions, technology can be acquired at a much lower cost than other methods of technology transfer..
Technology Transfer Process Technology
transfer is a complex and difficult process and without necessary study and investigation, it is not only not useful, but it may lead to the weakening of national technology in addition to wasting capital and time. The technology transfer process has various and continuous steps that can be divided into three main parts:
  • Choosing and acquiring technology;
  • Adaptation, application and absorption of technology;
  • Technology development and dissemination .
1-  The selection and acquisition of the technology
needed by each country is determined based on the national technology planning system, which includes the following considerations.:
It is in line with the goals of macro development planning;
Although the technology planning system is a dependent and subordinate system of the national development planning, but in terms of observing the synergistic features of the technology development plans, the above plan is considered as the axis of coordination of the national development plans.;
The set of technologies needed by each economic sector is determined based on the priorities of the relevant sector, and then in the next step, the method of supplying each is determined.;
Although in the stage of determining the technology needs of each economic sector, it plans its set of needs with a specific and partial perspective, but in the stage of selecting technology transfer projects, the above selection is made based on a national and cross-sector perspective..

2- Adaptation, application and absorption of technology
A - Adaptation of technology: the process of adapting and linking imported technology with economic and social conditions and conditions, including the ability to invest, the skill level of human resources, infrastructure capabilities, weather conditions and economic goals and policies. They say.
The use of imported technology without considering the above, if possible, will definitely cause the regular chain of the technology process to be broken, and the other stages of "absorption, development and dissemination" will not be realized..
The modification and adaptation of foreign technology will be different according to its complexity and the needs and capabilities of the recipient of the technology, but in general, the following actions should be taken..
- Revising the product design and making necessary changes
- Amendments and changes in production methods and manufacturing techniques
- Adapting buildings and facilities to production methods and volumes
- Examining the organization and management needed and new organization
- Modifying and changing the product sample.
These actions may be done in the first stage of the technology transfer process , i.e. at the time of signing the contract, or it may be done after operation. It is natural that this match requires having an expert force, the spirit of fighting and fighting for economic independence, and the existence of sufficient resources and plans..
B- Application of technology: The process of using technology for the purpose of producing goods and services, as well as obtaining production methods and performing activities and actions before use, is called the application of technology. In this stage, the design, construction of buildings and facilities, installation and start-up of machinery, and the establishment of management systems and organizations are carried out, which we refer to below.:
- Necessary designs based on adapted technology
- The use of management systems, including planning, production control, and manpower organization
- Creating an organizational chart
- Implementation of construction operations, transportation, installation and start-up of machinery
- Taking advantage of the actions taken
- Product marketing and sales.
The successful completion of this stage depends on the successful transition from the stage of adaptation and assimilation of technology.
C- Absorption of technology: The process of assimilation of technology begins with the examination of the basics of design, installation and commissioning of machines and ends with the adoption of technology at the community level. In such a way that the technical knowledge of the imported technology is considered a part of the general knowledge and skills of the importing country..

In order to absorb the technology, the following basic measures must be implemented:
Planning to absorb the technology of "studying documents and training inside and outside";
Recruitment of specialized manpower;
Having a research unit or a team of experts to examine the technology from the conclusion of the contract to the use of the technology;
Investigating and studying similar technologies and visiting factories abroad.
It should be mentioned that the purpose of education in absorbing technology is not university education, but the purpose of learning technology techniques. Unfortunately, in the cases of transfer of technologies to Iran, we have seen that technology education has been mistaken for university education..
3- Development and dissemination of technology
A - Development of technology: If the aforementioned steps, i.e. adaptation, application and assimilation of technology, are carried out correctly, it can be said that the transfer of technology has been realized, that is, what the transferor has committed to according to the contract has been done, but the process Technology transfer is not over.
This process will continue when a new technology is created using the transferred knowledge and skills and experience. In this case, we have stepped into the stage of technology development. That is, we have been able to create a new technology that fits the needs of the society by combining the acquired technology and the results of our own knowledge, skills and experience. The development of technology has the following stages, just like the stages of adaptation, absorption and application:
Designing the production of new products;
Making an educational sample;
Trial production of the product and fixing its defects;
mass production.
The development of technology will not be possible without research and development institutions, and it is necessary that the research and development unit starts its work in the stages of adaptation and absorption of technology, especially the application stage. It is obvious that what is meant by the development of technology is not development at the level of a production unit, but development in its general sense, and without the establishment of research institutions in industrial units and educational institutions and the expansion of technical and professional education and continuous communication between industry and universities, and most importantly, love and The government's interest in progress, technological development is not possible.
B - Diffusion of technology: The development of technology at the level of an economic enterprise and even at the level of a sector will not be effective without its expansion to the entire structure of science and technology of society. The diffusion of technology means the absorption of acquired technology and new technologies in all its fields, including education. , absorption, application and development.
Diffusion of technology will be realized when it not only increases production at the level of the society, but also improves the level of public knowledge and skills with regional cooperation beyond the level of a country..
The success factors of technology transfer to developing
countries, in general, developing countries can learn valuable lessons from the successful experience of some industrialized and newly industrialized countries, especially countries located in East Asia and Latin America regarding technological and industrial development.
 The experience of the successful countries has shown that the widespread adoption and transfer of suitable and modern technologies to these countries enables them to increase their productivity and as a result, it has led to the rapid industrial development of these countries.
For example, countries such as South Korea, Taiwan, Brazil and Mexico emerged as newly industrialized countries in East Asia and Latin America mainly through the import and transfer of foreign technology. In general, the situation factors of these countries can be divided into two internal and external factors. Within these countries, the national determination to develop technology is at the forefront of all planning and actions, and all the platforms and structures necessary to realize this have been prepared.
Outside, due to the saturation of the investment space in developed countries, western investors and international companies have been attracted to joint cooperation and investment in these countries. per capita, economic volume, primary resources and industrialization process distinguished them from other countries, despite this study of their success factors can be very useful for other countries that are trying to follow the same industrial development pattern.
Some of the most important effective factors in the successful transfer of technology of newly industrialized countries are::
  • Efficient and effective management
  • Close cooperation between research centers and industries
  • Attention to research and development activities
  • Being available in the market is sufficient
  • Good ability and capacity to absorb technology in the receiving country
  • Effective government support
  • The desire of technology transmitters and receivers
  • Export development policy
As an example, below is the experience of two countries, Japan and South Korea:
Japan's experience in technology transfer:
Japan is one of the advanced countries and one of the biggest exporters of industrial products, and it is the only country that covered the time gap between developing and industrialization faster than any other country. For its development, this country used the flying geese model, which was proposed by Professor Akamatsu in 1937. In this model, in the first stage, the domestic demand is completely supplied by imports. The second stage begins when the domestic purchasing power reaches a sufficient level. It turns out that domestic production is profitable and able to start production. Gradually, the growth of imports slows down and even decreases, and national production gradually replaces imports from developed countries. When the production capacity reaches a significant level, the third stage begins. At this stage, the export has started and gradually grows significantly with the saturation of the domestic market..
According to the foreign investment law, the priority of importing technology in this country was primarily given to those foreign capitals that are able to promote Japanese goods in the international market by improving product quality and producing more. In this case, exports would also increase and the balance of foreign payments would change in favor of Japan. The second priority was related to projects that were effective in the development of strategic industries..
In technology transfer, Japan has always tried to actively participate in all stages of negotiation and design to the stage of launching and production. Japan in every field, after receiving the technology in the form of crystallized knowledge in the means of production and written knowledge, first asked the experts to disassemble and reassemble the means of production many times in order to practically get acquainted with the written knowledge and the underlying technologies of the relevant technologies and gain the necessary knowledge. do it, then correct its defects and finally start its revised design. In this way, the received technology is internally transformed and improved, and finally the new design is entrusted to the industries that are able to produce it..
Japan's technology transfer policy, both in implementation and investment, is highly decentralized. The core of this policy is a network of regional research institutes whose main task is technical assistance in the development or adaptation of new technologies, especially for small and medium-sized companies. The investment of the central government reduces the cost of capital equipment of research institutes by half, and the companies and local authorities provide the rest of the cost..
In Japan, there has been a very good capacity to attract and commercialize technology. The proof of the claim is that many of the products produced in Japan have been invented in other countries, but in these countries there is no ability to compete with the cheaper and better quality production power of Japan..
Due to the fact that there is a lot of interest and ability to attract, develop and spread technology in Japan, this country has been able to benefit from the least expensive methods for technology transfer . In this way, with the transfer of technology at higher levels of technological ability, the "stage of applied research and development" has been able to obtain rich benefits by paying relatively low costs related to the use of patents, by improving the production process and supplying goods at a low price and high quality. get your share In addition, Japan has made extensive use of informal methods of technology transfer, including scientific and technical exchanges, visits to exhibitions and scientific and technical centers, and similar cases, so that mainly Western companies are reluctant to allow Japanese engineers and specialists to visit their industries. they are afraid.
Technology transfer 2
South Korea's experience in technology transfer:
Among the newly industrialized countries of East Asia, South Korea is always considered as an example of rapid economic and industrial growth and development and successful technology transfer. This country, which enjoyed such a high growth rate during the three decades of 1960s to 1990s, is always referred to as the miracle of the Han River. In general, in the literature related to economic development, some of the success factors of this country in rapid industrial and technological development, such as the spirit of effort and work order of the people of this country, the extensive financial and technical assistance of America and Japan in the initial stages of industrial development, the effective role of the policies adopted by The government includes the policies of expanding exports and developing human resources.
 The adoption of the export expansion policy in South Korea encouraged and facilitated the import and transfer of modern technologies to this country. Also, the adoption of policies for the development and expansion of human resources and very heavy investment for the training and training of skilled manpower played a very important role in strengthening the internal technological ability of that country..
The government of this country also created a suitable environment and effective implementation of macroeconomic policies to provide the necessary background for advancing the policies and strategy of industry development in this country. Of course, it should be noted that one specific factor alone cannot be mentioned as the success of this country, but it was a set of related factors that caused the progress and rapid growth of this country in a relatively short period of time.
According to the model of flying geese"FLYING GEESE MODEL" Developed countries that are known as the pioneers of advanced technology transfer their technologies to newly industrialized countries that are lower in terms of technology level. When these countries, technological vacuumThey make their "TECHNOLOGICAL GAP" less compared to advanced countries, they export some of their industrial products that were already made by developed countries to developing countries. According to this theory, South Korea followed the Japanese model to achieve development by adopting appropriate technologies and technology transfer..
In order to achieve sustainable development and growth and effective transformation in the industrial structure of this country, Korean policy makers have continuously strengthened the industrial infrastructure based on the development of internal managerial and technological capabilities in this country. Also, the control and guidance of the government on the transfer of technology and foreign direct investment, its commitment and adherence to the adoption of support policies such as the granting of long-term loans by state banks are among the important and necessary factors for achieving rapid industrial development and achieving higher levels of living standards in this country. . The science and technology development policy in South Korea has emphasized more on the development of the capacity for the correct selection, absorption and adaptation of imported technologies.
 Also, by adopting forward-looking policies and expanding exports, the government of this country encouraged large Korean industrial companies to invest more in technology in order to be able to compete better in global markets, this is mostly through the entry of "capital" goods that It contained advanced technologies.
Technology transfer in South Korea is mostly done through the method of importing capital goods. Although some other methods of technology transfer such as turnkey method and reverse engineering were also used in the early stages of industrial development in Korea.
Also, the transfer of technology through the import of machinery, equipment and capital goods has been the most important channel of technology transfer during the period between 1962-1986, which is about 21 times more than other methods of technology transfer in terms of quantity and value in this country..
Other factors of Korea's success in rapid industrial development have been the adoption of a set of policies for the development of human resources and the education and training of the workforce in this country. The huge investment of the Korean statesmen on the education and training of human resources at all educational levels was a very effective and useful step towards the acquisition, absorption, adaptation and development of imported technologies..
Therefore, the significant point is that developing countries, considering their technological capabilities and industrial infrastructures, should study the development model of the newly developed East Asian countries, especially Korea..
Technology transfer
contracts Technology transfer contracts are of particular importance due to the lack of currency in the receiving countries and the heavy price and complexity of the contracts. For many years, UNCTAD, with the participation of developing and industrialized countries, has been trying to prepare a model contract that the parties can sign by filling in the blanks..
For the above reasons and also because the transfer of technology is mainly related to long-term and basic economic development plans, the governments of the recipient countries have prepared and regulated the general rules of foreign purchase contracts and the conclusion of technology transfer contracts. The government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, through the resolution of 1/28/1359, by the Revolutionary Council, obliged all the executive bodies and institutions of the Islamic Revolution to comply with the rules set by the government.
Today, several factors under the influence of the intensity of competition in the business environment and technological developments have joined hands to develop business processes in the pharmaceutical industry, including the manufacture and production of new drugs in different therapeutic classes and related activities (including research and development, analysis, operations management, etc.) through joint collaborations within the group and between companies of a pharmaceutical group or through international collaborations with new assignments and requirements.
Therefore, it is not only obvious that adopting a scientific and methodical approach to technology transfer projects is a real need in the pharmaceutical industry, but also due to the multiplicity, severity and severity of the risks associated with the technology transfer process, the output of which should be the manufacture and production of a drug To be safe, cost-effective, efficient and compatible with the principles of optimal production operations and at the same time economical, the approach based on risk management of technology transfer is a must and a "must".
In this regard, important international guidelines, including technical reportsPDA No. 65 and also documentsICH, provide practical guidance for developing internal procedures, skills and understanding the main roles and responsibilities of each stakeholder in the technology transfer process and finally approaches leading to a successful technology transfer. In this regard, it seems that senior managers, all managers and responsible experts in the departments of research and development, production, quality assurance, validation, technical-engineering (involved in process/equipment design), quality control (involved in analysis methods) Project and technology transfer managers should have a basic understanding of the requirements, procedures, responsibilities, checklists, processes, monitoring and controls and documentation of technology transfer (internal and external) and identify, evaluate, prevent, control and manage risks. They should follow the process of technology transfer and have appropriate plans for each stage and each process.
 This is especially important in the transfer of technology of biological products, where the risks caused by changes in the implementation of the project must be properly managed. Based on this, it seems that the technology transfer modelstage-gate is one of the methods that help to manage the risks caused by any type of change in the designed processes or unplanned changes that result from unforeseen conditions..
Modelstage-gate is one of the well-known models in the industry, which determines and checks the timing of the processes and requirements through a precise and step-by-step definition, and by using a systematic and precise planning, costs can be significantly reduced. and increases productivity in the transfer of technical knowledge .
According to this model, development and control activities may be done simultaneously. Therefore, obtaining the necessary permits from regulatory bodies, creating production infrastructure, marketing, etc., will be done in parallel at the same time that the technology transfer team is performing its duties and the engineers are building. Certainly, the formation of a technology transfer team of people with functional characteristics and multiple operational potentials along with a centralized documentation unit, 
Final words:
Raymon's strategic management group has always tried to expect financial acquisition from businessHe should provide all his services with the best possible quality to his beneficiaries and also consider the purposes and profit and wealth production of his clients. Having successful experiences in creating technology transfer is one of the biggest achievements of Raimon Group. As a consultant, Raymon Group stands beside the investors and takes steps towards adding value to employers and investors as much as possible.
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